Like any other business process, these
objectives can only be met with well thought out procedures
and methodologies. To haphazardly approach a problem from
a reactive standpoint increases the risk of failure to meet
objectives. To by-pass any of the steps normally associated
with a task, also increases risk. On the other hand, every
Program has its own set of individual circumstances, which
may cause some variation in procedures. Each Program must
be analyzed. Proven procedures and methodologies are then
adapted to best meet the overall goals of the Program.
Designing a facility, of any size requires
a multitude of skills and disciplines. The various disciplines
must work together in order to achieve common goals. But before
this synergy can take place, goals have to be well defined
in unambiguous language, so that all skills can understand
them, and take these goals into consideration during facility
planning and implementation.
Furthermore, by defining a clear set
of facility objectives, user expectations can be better met,
along with stronger financial accountability for the project.
It is not un-common after a facility is built for a major
constituent to say, "But I thought it could do XYZ? How
come it can’t?" or "Why did we spend so much
money on X, when we could of had Y?" By setting a clear
plan, this type of disappointment can be diminished. The benefits
for incorporating this methodology include:
||Predictable results due to consistency
in solution planning, development and tracking
|| Control over costs resulting from
||Management of risk by specific procedures
for identifying, assessing, and monitoring risk and planning
|| Reliable quality through a quality
model that underlies all program activity
In general, facility planning incorporates
the following steps:
||Recognition of need, usually occurs
internal to the organization.
|| Agreement to proceed with plan,
management approval of project goals and possibly initial
allocation of space and/or funds.
||Needs Analysis, an internal agreement
among various members of the organization as to the means
of achieving the facilities goals. This may include further
development of any of the objectives itemized above. A
"wish" list is made from the various constituent
groups. Initial research is begun with regard to implementation.
At this time serious discussion should occur with regards
to the facilities life cycle.
|| Programming Phase, is the latest
point in the project where the various design and implementation
disciplines should be brought into the discussion. The
programming phase yields a methodical document which describes
each system and sub-system related to the facility based
on the goals and needs developed in the three previous
phases. It serves as a common baseline from which all
further design development and implementation progresses.
The document also serves as a baseline for budget. The
document is reviewed by the project team, organization
management and other constituent parties. Changes may
be made to be incorporated into the next phase
||Conceptual plan, is probably the
first time that all the information garnered above is
put down into a coordinated graphic plan. This plan takes
into consideration all the objectives and goals outlined
above. Additionally it takes into account the technical
and financial considerations of the space. The Conceptual
plan is reviewed by the project team. At this point, if
the plan is successful, the project proceeds through to
the following phases. If the plan is not successful, the
plan reverts back to Needs Analysis and / or Programming
until the major open issues are resolved. Specific proprietary
items may be procured.
||Schematic Design, further defines
the design. At this point all major items have been identified,
and project direction is set. This phase usually produces
the first set of detailed drawings and specifications.
The design is reviewed by the project team. Changes are
made within the scope defined previously. Changes beyond
the defined scope, will require change control management
from the project team. Details are coordinated and worked
out for incorporation into the next phase. Procurement
may take place for known systems.
||Design Development, takes the project
into its final form. All major and minor components of
the project will be identified and configured into the
system. All disciplines are involved with quality assurance
review of their work, and for coordinating their work
with other members of the project team. The documents
are reviewed for the final time to insure that all needs
are addressed. Changes are of a technical nature, not
a functional nature. Wholesale changes in function and/or
form, can cause parts of the project to be delayed. At
this point, procurement for installation and implementation
Construction Documents, become
the final output of all the above work. These documents
are reviewed and sealed, as required, by all licensed
trades. Final procurement is performed. All details
have been decided to the best ability of the team. Changes
usually only occur due to variance in field conditions.
From these documents final construction shall be performed.
Since every facility is different, and
every client has different priorities, the steps listed above
can be modified to suite individual circumstances. However,
they should not be by-passed. To do so, can only cause poor
communication, delays, and increase cost.
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